The Blue Line on Thin Ice: Police Use of Force Modifications in the Era of Cameraphones and YouTube

Today, the popularity of cameras and online social media’s have contributed to the increasing public’s exposure to police behaviors. The historical invisibility is replaced by “new visibility” of front-line police work. More transparency of police behaviors let general public more concerned about that because they feel uncomfortable with violence. In this study, they find that policemen are aware of their behavior is visible so they need to be more careful in using violence in Canada. Therefore, the prevalence of cameras can change the dynamics of policing. We may expect police brutality can be improved by more visibility and increasing public awareness.

Reference:

BROWN, G. R. (2016). THE BLUE LINE ON THIN ICE: POLICE USE OF FORCE MODIFICATIONS IN THE ERA OF CAMERAPHONES AND YOUTUBE. British Journal Of Criminology, 56(2), 293-312. doi:10.1093/bjc/azv052

https://academic.oup.com/bjc/article/56/2/293/2462358

 

 

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Ironies of Citizenship: Skin Color, Police Brutality, and the Challenge to Democracy in Brazil.

Brazil became democratization after 1985, but the actual practices still couldn’t catch up with formal principles. The article reveals the criminal justice system in Brazil discriminate Afro-Brazilians: they are more likely to be the victims of assaults by polices and less likely to get protection by polices. These discriminatory phenomena in Brazil reflect that the democratic system in Brazil is unstable and imperfect. Comparing to the United States, are Brazil experiences similar? What do you think?

Reference:

Mitchell, M. J., & Wood, C. H. (1999). Ironies of Citizenship: Skin Color, Police Brutality, and the Challenge to Democracy in Brazil. Social Forces, 77(3), 1001-1020.

https://academic.oup.com/sf/article/77/3/1001/2233808

 

 

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Claims of Police Brutality Threaten to Escalate the Hong Kong Protests

Police brutality in Politics is everywhere, not only in western world, but also in Asia. Seven policemen have hurt a peaceful protestor in the most influential democratic protest in China since 1989. This democratic movement is known as “Occupy Central (Hong Kong commercial center)” in 2014 after “Occupy Wall Street” in the United States. Policemen have been ordered to prevent this illegal protest by Hong Kong government and Chinese central government. Another dispute in this movement is using tear gases toward peaceful protestors. If we compare the police brutality toward protestors, we can find some interesting facts about police using forces. For example, facing complex political environment and high public pressure, Hong Kong policemen can keep restrictive attitude toward people. After the movement, seven policemen were prosecuted by Department of Justice in Hong Kong.

Reference:

Campbell, C. (2014, October 15). Claims of Police Brutality Threaten to Escalate the Hong Kong Protests. Times. Retrieved November 20, 2017, from http://time.com/3508857/ken-tsang-hong-kong-police-brutality-occupy-central/

 

 

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Police Brutality in political crisis: Chaos in Catalonia

Police brutality is not only reflecting on racial and crimes, but also occurs in political crisis. As we can see in Catalonia referendum, Catalonia polices received orders from central government to stop the constitutionally illegal referendum. Policemen use violent methods to disperse voters and take over polling stations. Clearly, the independence of Catalonia is a political crisis between local Catalonia government and central government. In some extents, police brutality intensified the contradictions in Catalonia. There is no doubt that this article can give public attention toward police brutality in political field.

Reference:

Chaos in Catalonia. (2017, October 2). The New York Time. Retrieved November 20, 2017, from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/10/02/opinion/catalonia-spain-secession.html

 

 

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Police Fatally Shoot Bronx Man After He Stabs Two Guards, Authorities Say

Police brutality happens all the time in different places and different forms. Just days ago, one man had been killed by police in the excuse of “self-dense”. However, most witnesses and audiences of the video of shooting the man didn’t think the man have violent intention. What is the criteria of police using violent weapons? How to judge police behavior? We can’t give a clear answer about their right or wrong. General public can watch the news and videos by themselves and give their opinions.

Reference:

Mueller, B., & Stewart, N. (2017, November 13). Police Fatally Shoot Bronx Man After He Stabs Two Guards, Authorities Say. New York Times. Retrieved November 20, 2017, from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/13/nyregion/police-shoot-kill-bronx-man.html

 

 

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Racial Resentment and Attitudes Toward the Use of Force by Police: An Over-Time Trend Analysis.

 

The attitude toward police brutality is widely divided by their attitudes toward minorities. Previous findings support that perceptions toward police brutality toward minorities are racialized. In this article, two interesting results come out: first, whites’ beliefs toward race and racial inequality is highly correlated with their attitudes toward police brutality; second, the correlation between these two factors still constant. Reflecting from this article, we may rethink a new method to improve police brutality.

Reference:

Carter, J. S., & Corra, M. (2016). Racial Resentment and Attitudes Toward the Use of Force by Police: An Over-Time Trend Analysis. Sociological Inquiry, 86(4), 492-511. doi:10.1111/soin.12136

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/soin.12136/abstract

 

 

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Race, Communities and Informers.

Police Brutality not only can be examined by itself, but also can be analyzed with other factors, which is well known as intersectionality theory by Collins. First, the Korryn Gaines’s case is an example of using “intersectionality oppression” in analyzing surveillance and our society.  Second,  “racialization as a way of seeing” concept can explain why African Americans would be connected to crimes by some people. Third, surveillance theory and racial stereotypes can analyze the border patrol’s behaviors in targeting on US-Mexico border immigrants. Fourth, communities also play a role of surveillance by training residents to have “vigilante spirit” to socially excluded groups. By these racial prejudices and mass surveillance toward minorities or “potential terrorists”, minorities are always the victims of police brutality.

Reference:

Browne, S. (2017). Race, Communities and Informers. Surveillance & Society, 15(1), 1-4.

https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/surveillance-and-society/article/view/race-ed

 

 

 

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Encyclopedia: Police Brutality

Overall review of police brutality: definition, causes, how to limit this, and debate about violence of police to stop crime.

“Police Brutality” is a comprehensive concept including various aspects: police brutality is a “conscious and venal” act; police brutality is hard to limited by existing law both in the world and in the United States; there is many causes and occasions of police brutality. The article also points out the accountability for and control of police brutality all over the world.  Finally, the article response to the debate whether violence can prevent crimes by giving a resounding “no”.

Reference:

Chevigny, P. G. (2008). Police brutality. In L. R. Kurtz (Ed.), Encyclopedia of violence, peace and conflict (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Elsevier Science & Technology. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.rollins.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/estpeace/police_brutality/0?institutionId=4058

 

 

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Outcome of Police brutality: Police Brutality and Black Health: Setting the Agenda for Public Health Scholars

Public Health scholars: How can Police brutality influence health? How can we solve that?

What is the relationships between police brutality and poor health outcomes among Blacks and identified five intersecting pathways? First, fatal injuries that increase population-specific mortality rates;Second, adverse physiological responses that increase morbidity; Third, racist public reactions that cause stress; Fourth, arrests, incarcerations, and legal, medical, and funeral bills that cause financial strain; and fifth, integrated oppressive structures that cause systematic disempowerment. Targeted on these situations, public health scholars are seeking to find more useful data, do more accurate research, and should the responsibility against racist practices in police by suggesting some public policies.

Reference:

Alang, S., McAlpine, D., McCreedy, E., & Hardeman, R. (2017). Police Brutality and Black Health: Setting the Agenda for Public Health Scholars. American Journal Of Public Health, 107(5), 662-665. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2017.303691

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5388955/

 

 

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