About Julian Chambliss, Ph.D.


Dr. Chambliss is Associate Professor of History at Rollins College. His teaching and research focus on urban history and culture in the United States. He is co-recipient of an Associated Colleges of the South (ACS) & Research 1 University Collaborative Project grant to explore the creation of digital collaborative ventures to enhance undergraduate engagement with diaspora topics and texts, co-recipient of an ACS Mellon Foundation Faculty Renewal Grant for Project Mosaic: Zora Neale Hurston and an ACS Faculty Advancement Grant for Urban Dreams and Urban Disruptions: Transforming Travel Study and Undergraduate Archival Research with Collaborative Interdisciplinary Digital Tools. He is co-editor and contributor for Ages of Heroes, Eras of Men: Superheroes and the American Experience, a collection examining the relationship between superheroes and the American Experience

Dr. Chambliss serves as coordinator of the Africa and African-American Studies Program at Rollins, and Coordinator of the Media, Arts, and Culture Special Interest Section for the Florida Conference of Historians

Religion and Black Communities



Religion is used as a basis for a community, and in the case of predominately black communities, it is a vital part of life. The question is to what extent churches in the black community shaped their historic development. Examining Eatonville, Florida offers a way to identify the important connection between religion and contemporary settings. Historically, due to economic, social, and political circumstances facing the African-American population, their success after Reconstruction was partly dependent on religious organizations. African Americans relied on churches to create and maintain healthy communal bonds, which in turn would encourage the growth and stability of other institutions and businesses.[1] The church acted as a nexus to integrated the varying aspects of the black community. Because of the church, many black townships were able to organize and sustain themselves despite hardships. Today, as Eatonville demonstrates, churches continue to create and maintain community through their congregations.[2]

-By: Kristin Kendrick

[1] E. Franklin Frazier. The Negro Church in America. Schocken Books. 1974, 39-41.

[2] Frank M. Otey. Eatonville, Florida: A Brief History. Four-G Publishers, Inc. 1989. 6-11.


Desegregation of Orange County Public Schools

Wilhelm_Infographic-resizeThis infographic contextualizes desegregation in Orange County public schools in the 1970s. The 1954 U.S. Supreme Court case ​Brown v. Board of Education established that separate schools were “inherently unequal.”   However, it was not until Title IV of the 1964 Civil Rights Act authorized the federal government to pursue desegregation at the local level did real progress emerge for African-American parents seeking better education resources.

In the case of Orange County schools, the John P. Ellis and seven other African-American parents sued the Board of Public Instruction of Orange County Florida to “compel integration in public schools.” In 1968 fifty-five elementary schools were desegregated when 158 African-American teachers were reassigned to predominantly white schools and forty-six white teachers were placed in predominantly black schools.

By Lauren Wilhelm

Bernstein, Brittany, “All Deliberate Delay: Desegregating the Public Schools of Orange County, Florida,” The University of Central Florida Undergraduate Research Journal, 1 (2005), 48-57.


Orlando Sentinel. “Orange County Desegregation Timeline” http://www.orlandosentinel.com/news/local/orange/orl-desegregation-timeline,0,4550103.htmlstory (accessed April 15, 2014).

Still Separate, Still Unequal: Cycles of Inequality in Residential Orlando

Hernandez_ResizelThis info-graphic explores residential segregation in Orlando in the 1940s and 1980s. The means used to create housing segregation did change.  The graphic shows how in 1940, de jure segregation maintained the separation through Jim Crow laws. By 1980, de facto segregation maintained the separation through more subtle means, such as local government practices, housing market policies, and the discriminatory behavior of white residents.

The info-graphic also conveys the unequal qualities that accompanied both forms of segregation. Spatially, the white residential area is a larger, more open space, with fewer houses, meant to represent the predominantly white suburbs. The black residential side, in comparison, is smaller, and more crowded, reflecting the cramped spaces associated with the predominantly black inner city housing situation.

Finally, small word-blurbs surround the houses of the black and white areas in the info-graphic. They do not change across time (from 1940 to 1980), which suggests that the factors surrounding each residential area contribute to creating a cycle of wealth and affluence (for whites) and a cycle of poverty and frustration (for blacks). The blurbs conceptualize some of the more significant lifestyle differences, such as income levels, safety, employment access, and quality of schools, that would have affected the majority of the people (and race) living in each residential situation. The info-graphic shows that regardless of the way in which segregation was enforced at the time, separate housing still meant unequal opportunities for African Americans in 1940, and in 1980.

By Carly Hernandez


Carr, James H. and Nandinee K. Kutty. Segregation: The Rising Costs for America. New York: Routledge, 2008.

Keating, Dennis W. The Suburban Racial Dilemma: Housing and Neighborhoods, Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994.



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