IMW 300 Racial Fictions - Social Sciences 1

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Last week we met with our librarian to discuss the direction that our group is currently moving in. After assessing our progress, he concluded that sociology has been a major and developing trend so far in our research. Many of the articles we have cited deal with racial disparities in the workplace as well as racial disparities in other capacities such as in Hollywood.

Most of the works that we have cited have come from journals, magazines, and scholarly articles. Examples of some of our sources include, The City University of New York, the Strategic Management Journal, and the Southern California Public Radio. So far, thanks to these sources, our group has gathered a plethora of statistics about race in the workplace in America and on a global scale.

The next step for our group is to synchronize our data and statistics that we have collected and then analyze them and draw conclusions. Analyzing the information will be incredible important because it will enable us to deliver a strong presentation to the class. In search of good conclusive analyzations, we need to gather more information for the Olin Library’s research page. Our librarian has introduced us to some sources from the library that we will be able to use.

Racial Identity Inconsistency

This journal explores the topic of racial identity inconsistency. It is a great journal for our research because it ties in all of the social aspects that we have been talking about(education, economics, and relationships). It explains how ones inconsistent racial identity stems from emotional,social and academic outcomes.It also talks about the difference in the young adulthood and adolescence time frame of a person when it comes to measuring the levels of inconsistency of an identity . In addition it depicts the power “whites” have over individuals and the effects it has when viewing identity and other socioeconomic factors.This is also a great journal for our research because it goes on to talk about white privilege and the positive/negative effects it has on ones racial identity. I think this is a great journal because not only does it examine our topic of sociology in regards to racial identity but it ties it into what we have been talking about this semester in regards to “white privilege” and the different cultures and environments that make up race.

Kramer, Rory. “When Change Doesn’t Matter: Racial Identity & Inconsistency and Adolescent Well-being.” When Change Doesn’t Matter: Racial Identity (In)consistency and Adolescent Well-being (2015): n. pag. American Sociological Association. Web.

race in workplace

In the article “Ethnic, race, and gender gaps in workplace authority: Changes over time in United States” by Mintz and Krymkowski. This article talks about how white men were particularly privileged. One argument that is stated is “ workplace inequality transcends the white male-other dichotomy” this meaning there is not a lot of racial ethnic diversity in that particular field. Another major topic in this article is “unlike gender differences, a number of studies have reported that education explains part of the authority gap between black and white men, even though white men receive a much higher authority return on educational investments than their black male counterparts.” This is a interesting quote, to know that to this day black and white are not treated the same, even though they have the same qualifications.



Mintz, B., & Krymkowski, D. (2010). THE ETHNIC, RACE, AND GENDER GAPS IN WORKPLACE AUTHORITY: Changes over Time in the United States. The Sociological Quarterly, 51(1), 20-45. Retrieved from

Reflection 2

Our group was assigned to research race from a social science perspective. We have been focusing on racial inequality in the workplace. Today, women and men of different races work side by side making up the global workforce. To date, white men are more likely to have positions of power in an office setting. Since white men have historically held most positions of power, it makes it easy for them to continue to do so. History continues to influence many in the business world. Apprehension encourages a resistance in change.

Education is a major influencer of economic prosperity and mobility. It equips people with the skills they will need for jobs in the future. It is very difficult for low income families/impoverished families to break the cycle and receive a good education. Many of the sources we’ve found thus far have pointed to a direct correlation between socioeconomic status and mobility. In our final project, we plan on delving further into this relationship. A lot of the articles describe the injustices or privileges many face just because of their race. Research continues to point to economic disparity as the biggest contributor. Some sources emphasizes the link between education and social mobility. Also, many firms believe in the absence of racial inequality in the work environment. This issue is a big concern in the Public Relations industry. Overall, our research gives us an insight to the many injustices in the workplace due to race.

Workplace bullying

Fox, S., & Stallworth, L. E. (2005). Racial/ethnic bullying: Exploring links between bullying and racism in the US workplace. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66(3), 438-456. Retrieved from

Workplace bullying is an issue that has been ignored by many organizations. Bullying can range from subtle hostility to blatant disrespect. “there is evidence that the overt enactment and expression of racism has been largely replaced by a symbolic or modern form of racism.” In other words, racism is changing and each generation has its own way of continuing and supporting the disrespect of people because of the color of their skin. The article argues that laws implemented by the government might limit racism. However, the workplace “provides ample opportunity for subtle, even unconscious manifestations of racism, including neglect, incivility, humor, ostracism, inequitable treatment, and other forms of micro-aggression and micro-inequities.” The study confirmed high levels of bullying lead to negative emotional, physical, and behaviorial responses.

Race in the Workplace

Race in the workplace. (2009, Apr 22). Wall Street Journal Retrieved from

The article Race in the Workplace addresses the issues that still occur today within racial discrimination in the workplace. The Supreme Court ruled in 2007 that race cannot be a factor when assigning children to public schools and this article is raising awareness about the issues in the work place. It mentions a lawsuit that took place in New Haven, Connecticut between a group of fire fighters. They had a test to promote firemen to a captain position, the test was administered to white and black fire fighters. No black fire fighters passed the test so they trashed all of the other ones to prevent facing a lawsuit from the black candidates. A Federal Court agreed and dismissed the case before it could reach trial. The author mentions if you want to stop discriminating on the basis of race then it needs to stop all at once, whether that is in schools, the workplace, or any other setting.


Race, Gender, and Workplace Power

Elliot, J. R., & Smith, R. A. (2004). Race, Gender, and Workplace Power. American Sociological Review, 69(3), 365-286. Retrieved February 19, 2017, from

Today, women and men of different races work side by side making up the global workforce. The differences in culture, skin tone, and gender often leads to injustices in the workplace. Data continues to support findings of inequality in the workplace due to race. As employees gain more power in their field, the more likely it is to encounter inequality; this is especially true for black women in the workplace. This article also went onto explain the importance of same sex relationships and its correlation to power. White men have higher odds of achieving workplace power. Since white men have held most positions of power in the past, it makes it easy for them to continue to do so.

Racial differences in college education

Carnevale, Anthony P. “Separate & Unequal.” (n.d.): n. GeorgeTown, July 2013. Web.

This article Separate & Unequal focuses on the racial disparities and differences within higher education.  This article focuses on the differences in college education while reinforcing that there is an intergenerational white racial privilege. It gives many factual evidence as to the progressions and regressions for different racial groups ( mainly African Americans). “Race and class are separable and complimentary in their negative effects on educational and economical success”(Carnevale) and although racial bias is more subconscious today, then intentional as seen in past years we still see the overlap between education and economic mobility. It throughly explains the main causes of the disparity in the underrepresentation of minorities in a higher-education setting and ways that we can approach these causes. These causes are things such as wealth, parental education, performance in high school testing and place-based metrics. Ultimately, the white overrepresentation in colleges has decreased and the African American and hispanic representation has increased among colleges over the past decade.

Race and Entrepreneurial Success

Fairlie, R. W., & Robb, A. M. (2010). Race and entrepreneurial success: Black-, Asian-, and white-owned businesses in the United States. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Today, One in ten people own business in the United States. About 3.8 percent of African Americans own businesses. Black business owners face higher closure rates, less revenue, and smaller payrolls. Studies reveal that Asian American business perform better than both White and Black enterprises. High starting capital is the biggest contributor to this difference. Also, higher education plays a role in the success of businesses. Family background plays a key role in business ownership. If a parent has ownership experience, their children are more like to own/run a business. These patterns have remained unchanged for the past twenty years.

Exploring the Role and Approaches of Race in PR Education

Waymer, Damion and Omari Dyson. “The Journey into an Unfamiliar and Uncomfortable Territory: Exploring the Role and Approaches of Race in PR Education.” Journal of Public Relations Research, vol. 23, no. 4, Oct. 2011, pp. 458-477. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/1062726X.2011.605971.

This article discusses the void in race with public relations. There is a problematization in the absence of race in public relation scholarships and some firms do not perceive race as a relevant issue in PR and how they approach race in the curriculum. The article also uses an email based interview method of PR experiences, and the challenges that some faculty members faced during their time in PR.

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