Today, the word “racism” and “ending racism” is being used without a functional definition, one which provides a realistic basis for understanding how it can be eliminated or contained. Its present use by most such African Americans would have the masses believe that racism is all a matter of “attitude.” The article attempts to summarize the findings of international scholars attempting to analyze the meaning for racism, discrimination, attacks on minorities, etc. Several reasons for racism are mentioned: It promotes the devaluation of minorities, some cultures idealize aggression which facilitates minority/majority conflict, humans can have an incapacity for empathy, poor self-concept and world view, racism is influenced by subservience to authority and the authoritarianism of culture. Mass media attitudes and images portraying negative stereotypes facilitate discrimination and victimization of minorities. There are also social customs, rules and standards – minorities who frequently fill certain devalued positions in society, are thus confronted with vicious circles such as: they are janitors because they are discriminated against / they are discriminated against because they are janitors. Race has been perpetuated through various systems and for various reasons. Changing societal attitudes may well require a focus on restructuring societal institutions; rethinking the rationalization of mass media programming, the contents of the education system, and the concept of justice guiding the output of our judicial systems; the reconceptualization of the goals of law enforcement, etc. This article makes me wonder how all of these institutions (education, media, government, etc.) combined to structure racism? And What if these systems did not have minority and majority distinctions, would racism still exist?

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