Researchers are trying to identify the factors that induce perceptual biases. In this article they examine two studies on unrelated biases of perception: the other-race effect (ORE) and categorical color perception (CCP). ORE research shows that people are usually more exposed to faces of their own ethnic group and hence become experts in processing and remembering their characteristics. Own-race faces are linked to proper names, whereas other-race faces are linked to the category label. In effect, people tend to see objects as more homogeneous when belonging to the same category and as more different when belonging to different categories. With CCP (when categorizing) people are faster in distinguishing two colors belonging to different categories than two colors belonging to the same category (i.e. blue and green vs two different shades of blue). Cultural labels create categories, which, in turn, guide individual perception. Perception is strictly linked to, and can be guided by, the linguistic and social framing of the categorical boundaries. Categorization and labeling are strictly linked to each other as labels make categories clearer and, in turn, categories help the language community, from which labels derive, to maintain a specific social system.

Why do people feel the need to categorize/label groups, colors, ethnicities, races, etc. that are different from their own? How do different perceptions impact categorizations? If race is just a category created by individual perceptions, then is race real?

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezproxy.rollins.edu:2048/doi/10.1111/cdev.12564/full