“Rules and Regulations”

“Rules and Regulations.” 1961-1962.  College Policy Manuscripts.  Rules and Regulations Handbook.  Rollins College Archives, Rollins College. http://archives.rollins.edu/cdm/compoundobject/collection/students/id/358/rec/4

This piece is from our day in the Rollins College Archives.  There was so much valuable information, but this one really popped out to me.  This is a rules and regulations book from, what the archivists estimate, around 1961-1962.  It has all the rules for men, women, and general rules.  I found this interesting because of the types of rules that the college used to have, and the huge difference between the rules for men, and the rules for women.  In the book, men had one page front and back of rules that only applied to them.  Women had about 6 front and back.  Just the difference in number shows the sexism of the college back then.  The women had a full page front about dressing and how to dress when, where as men had a third of a page.  Men had three sections of rules; personal conduct, dormitory regulations, and dress.  Women had four major sections, with a total of 16 subsections under the four main sections.  Some of these rules are understandable for living in a shared space, but the majority of them are rules just for being a woman.

“”Putting On” Sexiness: A Content Analysis of the Presence of Sexualizing Characteristics in Girl’s Clothing”

Child in a mini version of the adult model's bikini.

Child in a mini version of the adult model’s bikini.

Goodin, Samantha M., Alyssa Van Denburg, Sarah K. Murnen, and Linda Smolak. ““Putting On” Sexiness: A Content Analysis of the Presence of Sexualizing Characteristics in Girls’ Clothing.” Sex Roles 65.1 (2011): n. pag. Springer Link. Web. 25 Oct. 2016. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11199-011-9966-8

In this article, these authors analyzed children’s clothing, and how sexualized they were.  They looked at clothing for all minors in multiple store, to get a variety.  They discovered that about  30% of children’s clothing is being sexualized through cuts, fabrics, patterns, etc.  The other approximately 70 percent is classified as being only made to be childlike.  They also narrowed it down, saying that the majority of the sexualized clothing is primarily found in the tween’s clothing section, being the oldest section that they analyzed.  This makes sense when thinking about it.  Teens for a while have been wearing the most sexual clothing, and before that it was people in their 20s, the age is lowering, but not skipping age groups.  This shows how our society works, once it has sexualized the majority of an age group, it plays off of the want of a child to look and act old, to start selling sexualized clothes to the next age group of people.  It is also an interesting article, because it is written by two of the authors that authored a prior source of mine about self-sexualization.

Anti-Feminist Backlash

“Anti-feminist backlash: The role of system justification in the role of feminism” is a peer-reviewed journal that states society prolongs inequality because men are not ready for a change. System justification theory (SJT) posits that people are motivated to believe that the social system they live in is fair, desirable, and how it should be, especially in contexts that heighten the system justification motive. Past researchers have suggegrace-wang-art-feminismsted that opposition to feminists may be motivated by the threat that feminism presents to the legitimacy of the status quo and men’s place in society. Because of this view, society produces things to maintain the gender barrier. For example, some scholars have argued that we are in the midst of a media-generated backlash designed to undo the empowerment of girls and women. US popular culture targets young girls with anti-feminist messages, which undermine feminist movements. While maintaining these barriers, society does not produce positive messages to those who are trying to change the world.

The theory that women gaining more rights and power will undermine the status quo is not true. This article states that people need to understand the true meaning of feminism and how women are not trying to take over the world. Instead, they are fighting for rights that should not be restricted to them in the first place.


“Sexualizing the Self”

Smolak, Linda, Sarah K. Murnen, and Taryn A. Myers. “Sexualizing the Self.” Psychology of Women Quarterly 3rd ser. 38 (2014): 379-97. Sage Journals. Web. 11 Nov. 2016. <http://pwq.sagepub.com/content/38/3/379>.

In this article, Smolak and her colleagues conducted a study to try and analyze the similarities and differences between males and females in the act of self-sexualizing.  They discovered concrete support for the existence of self-sexualizing of women, but not of men.  They also got very specific and consistent results from the trial, showing that women often are subject to self-sexualization, but they got no evidence of men self-sexualizing, or very few cases.  From this they conclude that self-sexualizing is less prevalent and less meaningful in men’s lives.  They also draw connections between one’s self-sexualizing, and the sexual objectification of someone. They have concluded this through a series of tests, tested the students of two small liberal arts colleges.   This article was interesting because it deals with the issue of a sexualized culture, in addition to how women are sexually objectified.  These tests were also conducted in small liberal arts schools, which is much like Rollins which could transfer some of the thoughts to our campus.  I think that this article will be one that I can fairly easily draw conclusions and connections with.

Older and Younger Adults’ Attitudes Toward Feminism

“Older and Younger Adults’ Attitudes Towards Feminism: The Influence of Religiosity, Political Orientation, Gender, Education, and Family” presents a study that explored attitudes toward feminism in 245 U.S. college students and their older relatives. Participants completed a scale of attitudes towards feminism, political orientation, a religiosity mphoto-2easure, and a demographic questionnaire. Results indicated that older adults were more conservative than younger adults on their attitudes towards feminism, religiosity, and political orientation measures. In the young adult sample, attitudes towards feminism were predicted by gender and political orientation, compared to older adults in which religiosity and political orientation were the best predictors. Young adults’ political views were associated with older adults’ attitudes towards feminism.

My final paper is going to revolve around feminism, in college mainly, and how many women do not identify themselves as feminists because of the views associated with the word feminism. Thus, this source will help immensely as it will help back up my main argument by providing evidence in the ways people view feminists and their work.

Fitzpatrick Bettencourt, Kathryn,E., Tammi Vacha-haase, and Zinta S. Byrne. “Older and Younger Adults’ Attitudes Toward Feminism: The Influence of Religiosity, Political Orientation, Gender, Education, and Family.” Sex Roles, vol. 64, no. 11-12, 2011., pp. 863-874doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11199-011-9946-z.


“The Truth About Gender Inequality In Film”

My popular source this week is another article from Buzzfeed that discusses women’s role in film and how disadvantaged they actually are. Buzzfeed first talks about how women are portrayed on screen in the top 500 films. They results were;

  1. 30.8% of speaking characters were women
  2. 28.8% of women wore sexually revealing clothing as opposed to 7% of men
  3. 26.2% of women actors got partially naked as opposed to 9.4% of men do
  4. Average ratio of male actors to female actors is 2.25:1
  5. Percentage of female teenagers depicted with some nudity as increased 32.5% from 2007 to 2012.


Along with that, Buzzfeed discussed inequality in the industry of film which included statistics on the gender differences as directors, writers, producers, executive producers, editors and cinematographies. The results showed that men dominated all these fields, and in some cases, there was even a difference of 88%. They also compared the salary of actors and in 2013, the highest paid female actor, Angelina Jolie, made $33 million, roughly the same amount as the two lowest paid male actors. Furthermore, age appears to be a dominant factor in an actress’s monetary success compared to men.

Main, Sami. “The Truth About Gender Inequality In Film.” Buzzfeed. N.p., 5 Dec. 2013. Web. 28 Oct. 2016.

“Sexualizing the Child: The Strange Case of Bill Henson, His ‘absolutely Revolting’ Images and the Law of Childhood Innocence”


Are children actually becoming more sexual, or are we creating that assumption based off of society’s growing definition of sexual?

Simpson, Brian. “Sexualizing the Child: The Strange Case of Bill Henson, His ‘absolutely Revolting’ Images and the Law of Childhood Innocence.” Sexualities 14.3 (2011): 290-311. Sage Journals. Web. 19 Oct. 2016. http://sex.sagepub.com/content/14/3/290

This article discusses a case in Australia, which was about a photographer and his image of a nude 12 year old, which was claimed to be pornography under the law.  Bill Henson created a photo series that he was going to present, in the invitations, he included a few of his photographs, including one of a naked 12 year old girl.  As soon as people saw this, the police came in and took the image down, as it violated the laws about child pornography.  The law was then explained that child pornography is when a child under 14 is videoed of pictured doing sexual activities, being abused sexually or physically, or if the context of the image is sexual.  The author then talks about how the only category of child pornography this would fall under is the context of the image was sexual.  This is why he makes his argument that children are being sexualized.  This child was not looking or doing anything sexual, other than not being clothed.  The author argues that the act of being naked is not sexual, it is the belief by society that has made people think that it is sexual.

“Why This Young Woman’s Facebook Post About the Way Girls Dress Is Going Viral”

This woman was cat called and verbally assaulted while in this outfit.

This woman was cat called and verbally assaulted while in this outfit.

Carter, Maria. “Why This Young Woman’s Facebook Post About the Way Girls Dress Is Going Viral.” Seventeen. Hearst Communications Inc., 30 Jan. 2016. Web. 18 Oct. 2016. http://www.seventeen.com/life/real-girl-stories/news/a37668/why-this-womans-outfit-is-going-viral/

This is a popular source that discusses one of many images that have gone viral throughout the past few years.  This woman, Christen, was in the subway station one winter morning, dressed in knee-high boots, leggings, a winter jacket that covered her butt, and a scarf, the only skin showing was on her hands and face.  As she was walking a man called out to her saying she had nice legs, when she didn’t respond, he continued to degrade her calling her pet names and saying how she should be thankful to his “compliment”.  Christen posted this image and her story on facebook, and it went viral.  People were appalled with how this man reacted when he could only see about 5 inches of her legging covered legs.  Christen also reflected on what this means for humanity, she explains that through what this man said, it felt as if he believed her body was a “gift wrapped for him”.  Men have been trained through culture and society to just see women as sexualized being for the man’s pleasure.

“Still Trapped in the U.S. Media’s Closet: Representations of Gender-Variant, Pre-Adolescent Children”

For my scholarly post this week, I thought I would continue my research from the second paper. Therefore, my source posts will surround the topic of “Gender in Media” for a while. Many studies have examined representations of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in the U.S. media. However, studies showed that the media usually only portrays adults or teenagers. This article investigates the LGBT population that has been neglected in media research.

lgbt-tvThe author found out that under-representation of the LGBT community, mainly gender-variant, preadolescent children, is affected them considerably . They surveyed the U.S. media at large with an emphasis on television, and the article revealed that gender-creative youth are nearly invisible. When depictions of gender-variant kids do appear, they often focus on either children who express extreme gender dysphoria or in some way signify the “tragic queer” motif (or both).

This topic I have been researching on for a while is one that really interests me and I hope to be able to go along this path of research for my final paper.



“You Look Disgusting”

Beauty standards put on men and women have increasingly become worse as the world progresses. Television shows and movies produce false realities for people making them believe that they are not “perfect”. There have been thousands of suicide cases committed because of the way someone looks and feels. It is the false advertisements and unrealistic expectations for both men and women on social media that create this look of “perfection”.you-look-disgusting

Beauty Blogger, Em Ford, posted a video titled “you look disgusting” where she opens about her own feelings based on the negative comments she receives every day because of the way she looks. Em Ford states “I wanted to create a film that showed how social media can set unrealistic expectations on both women and men. One challenge many face today is that as a society, we’re so used to seeing false images of perfection, and comparing ourselves to unrealistic beauty standards that It can be hard to remember the most important thing – You ARE beautiful.” This video also proves that no matter what you change about yourself, there are always going to be someone who feels the need to be negative about you.

Muto, Jordan. “‘You Look Disgusting’: YouTube Star Turns Comments into a New Message.” TODAY.com. TODAY, 17 July 2015. Web. 14 Oct. 2016.